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traits.py

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
#  Defines the 'core' traits for the traits package, which defines a
#  capability that allows other classes to easily define objects with
#  traits (i.e. attributes) that support:
#    - Initialization (have predefined values that do not need to be explicitly
#                      initialized in the class constructor or elsewhere)
#    - Validation     (have flexible, type checked values)
#    - Delegation     (have values that can be delegated to other objects)
#    - Notification   (can automatically notify interested parties when changes 
#                      are made to their value.
#    - Visualization  (can automatically construct automatic or 
#                      programmer-defined user interfaces that allow their 
#                      values to be edited or displayed)
#
#  Note: 'trait' is a synonym for 'property', but is used instead of the 
#  word 'property' to differentiate it from the Python language 'property'
#  feature.
#
#  Written by: David C. Morrill
#
#  Original Date:                         06/21/2002
#  Rewritten as a C-based type extension: 06/21/2004
#
#  (c) Copyright 2002, 2004 by Enthought, Inc.
#
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
               
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Imports:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

import sys
import trait_handlers

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Deprecation warning level:
#    < 0: Summarize warnings at exit 
#    = 0: No warnings
#    = 1: Print all warnings
#    = 2: Print all warnings, no 'name_changed' coercions
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

deprecate            = 1
deprecation_warnings = 0

def warning ( msg ):
    global deprecate, deprecation_warnings
    
    if deprecate > 0:
        print msg
    if deprecate >= 0:
        return
    if deprecate != -999999:
        deprecate = -999999
        import atexit
        atexit.register( summarize_warnings )
    deprecation_warnings += 1

# Patch cross-module dependency:    
trait_handlers.warning = warning

def summarize_warnings ( ):
    if deprecation_warnings > 0:
        print ("A total of %d trait deprecation warnings occurred." % 
               deprecation_warnings)
               
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Imports:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

from inspect        import stack
from ctraits        import cTrait, CTraitMethod
from trait_base     import SequenceTypes, Self, Undefined, Missing, \
                           TypeTypes, class_of, add_article, enumerate, \
                           BooleanType
from trait_errors   import TraitError                            
from trait_handlers import TraitHandler, TraitInstance, TraitList, TraitDict, \
                           TraitFunction, TraitType, TraitCastType, TraitEnum,\
                           TraitCompound, TraitMap, TraitString, ThisClass, \
                           TraitRange, TraitTuple, TraitCallable
from trait_handlers import TraitThisClass, TraitAny  # deprecated
                           
from types import NoneType, IntType, LongType, FloatType, ComplexType,    \
                  StringType, UnicodeType, ListType, TupleType, DictType, \
                  FunctionType, ClassType, ModuleType, MethodType, \
                  InstanceType, TypeType

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Editor factory functions: 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PasswordEditor      = None
MultilineTextEditor = None
SourceCodeEditor    = None

def password_editor ( ):
    global PasswordEditor
    
    if PasswordEditor is None:
        from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui import TextEditor
        PasswordEditor = TextEditor( password = True )
        
    return PasswordEditor
    
def multi_line_text_editor ( ):
    global MultilineTextEditor
    
    if MultilineTextEditor is None:
        from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui import TextEditor
        MultilineTextEditor = TextEditor( multi_line = True )
        
    return MultilineTextEditor
    
def code_editor ( ):
    global SourceCodeEditor
    
    if SourceCodeEditor is None:
        from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui import CodeEditor
        SourceCodeEditor = CodeEditor()
        
    return SourceCodeEditor
    
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  'CTrait' class (extends the underlying cTrait c-based type):
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
class CTrait ( cTrait ):
    
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Allows a derivative trait to be defined from this one:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    def __call__ ( self, *args, **metadata ):
        if 'parent' not in metadata:
            metadata[ 'parent' ] = self
        return Trait( *(args + ( self, )), **metadata )

    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Returns the user interface editor associated with the trait:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    def get_editor ( self ):
        from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui import EditorFactory
        
        # See if we have an editor:
        editor = self.editor
        if editor is None:
            
            # Else see if the trait handler has an editor:
            handler = self.handler
            if handler is not None:
                editor = handler.get_editor( self )
                
            # If not, give up:
            if editor is None:
                return None
                    
        # If the result is not an EditoryFactory:
        if not isinstance( editor, EditorFactory ):
            # Then it should be a factory for creating them:
            args   = ()
            traits = {}
            if type( editor ) in SequenceTypes:
                for item in editor[:]: 
                    if type( item ) in SequenceTypes:
                        args = tuple( item )
                    elif isinstance( item, dict ):
                        traits = item
                    else:
                        editor = item
            editor = editor( *args, **traits )
            
        # Cache the result:
        self.editor = editor
        
        # Return the resulting EditorFactory object:
        return editor
    
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Returns the help text for a trait:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    def get_help ( self, full = True ):
        if full:
            help = self.help
            if help is not None:
                return help
        handler = self.handler
        if handler is not None:
            info = 'must be %s.' % handler.info()
        else:
            info = 'may be any value.'
        desc = self.desc            
        if self.desc is None:
            return info.capitalize()
        return 'Specifies %s and %s' % ( desc, info )
    
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Returns the pickleable form of a CTrait object:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    def __reduce_ex__ ( self, protocol ):
        return ( __newobj__, ( self.__class__, 0 ), self.__getstate__() )
        
# Make sure the Python-level version of the trait class is known to all
# interested parties:
import ctraits
ctraits._ctrait( CTrait )
       
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Constants:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ConstantTypes    = ( NoneType, IntType, LongType, FloatType, ComplexType,
                     StringType, UnicodeType )
                
PythonTypes      = ( StringType,   UnicodeType,  IntType,    LongType,
                     FloatType,    ComplexType,  ListType,   TupleType,
                     DictType,     FunctionType, MethodType, ClassType,
                     InstanceType, TypeType,     NoneType )
                     
CallableTypes    = ( FunctionType, MethodType )
                
TraitTypes       = ( TraitHandler, CTrait )

MutableTypes     = ( list, dict )

DefaultValues = {
    StringType:  '',   
    UnicodeType: u'',  
    IntType:     0,
    LongType:    0L,
    FloatType:   0.0,
    ComplexType: 0j,  
    ListType:    [],   
    TupleType:   (),
    DictType:    {},
    BooleanType: False
}

DefaultValueSpecial = [ Missing, Self ]
DefaultValueTypes   = [ ListType, DictType ]

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Function used to unpickle new-style objects:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

def __newobj__ ( cls, *args ):
    return cls.__new__( cls, *args )
        
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Returns the type of default value specified:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        
def _default_value_type ( default_value ):
    try:
        return DefaultValueSpecial.index( default_value ) + 1
    except:
        try:
            return DefaultValueTypes.index( type( default_value ) ) + 3
        except:
            return 0
    
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Returns the correct argument count for a specified function or method:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
def _arg_count ( func ):
    if (type( func ) is MethodType) and (func.im_self is not None):
        return func.func_code.co_argcount - 1
    return func.func_code.co_argcount
    
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  'TraitFactory' class:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
class TraitFactory ( object ):
    
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Initializes the object:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    def __init__ ( self, maker_function = None ):
        if maker_function is not None:
            self.maker_function = maker_function
    
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Creates a CTrait instance:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
        
    def __call__ ( self, *args, **metadata ):
        return self.maker_function( *args, **metadata )

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Returns a trait created from a TraitFactory instance:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
_trait_factory_instances = {}

def trait_factory ( trait ):
    global _trait_factory_instances

    tid = id( trait )
    if tid not in _trait_factory_instances:
        _trait_factory_instances[ tid ] = trait()
    return _trait_factory_instances[ tid ]
    
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Casts a CTrait or TraitFactory to a CTrait but returns None if it is neither:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
def trait_cast ( something ):
    """ Casts a CTrait or TraitFactory to a CTrait but returns None if it is 
        neither.
    """
    if isinstance( something, CTrait ):
        return something
    if isinstance( something, TraitFactory ):
        return trait_factory( something )
    return None
    
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Returns a trait derived from its input:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
def trait_from ( something ):
    """ Returns a trait derived from its input.
    """
    if isinstance( something, CTrait ):
        return something
    if something is None:
        something = Any
    if isinstance( something, TraitFactory ):
        return trait_factory( something )
    return Trait( something )
    
# Patch the reference to 'trait_from' in 'trait_handlers.py':    
trait_handlers.trait_from = trait_from    
    
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Define special 'factory' functions for creating common traits:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

def Any ( value = None, **metadata ):
    metadata[ 'type' ] = 'trait'
    trait = CTrait( 0 )
    trait.default_value( _default_value_type( value ), value )
    trait.__dict__ = metadata.copy()
    return trait
    
Any = TraitFactory( Any )    
    
#--- 'Coerced' traits ----------------------------------------------------------    
    
def Int ( value = 0, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitType( int ), **metadata )
    
Int = TraitFactory( Int )    
    
def Long ( value = 0L, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitType( long ), **metadata )
    
Long = TraitFactory( Long )
    
def Float ( value = 0.0, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitType( float ), **metadata )    
    
Float = TraitFactory( Float )
    
def Complex ( value = 0.0+0.0j, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitType( complex ), **metadata )    
    
Complex = TraitFactory( Complex )
    
def Str ( value = '', **metadata ):
    if 'editor' not in metadata:
        metadata[ 'editor' ] = multi_line_text_editor
    return Trait( value, TraitType( str ), **metadata )    
    
Str = TraitFactory( Str )
    
def Unicode ( value = u'', **metadata ):
    if 'editor' not in metadata:
        metadata[ 'editor' ] = multi_line_text_editor
    return Trait( value, TraitType( unicode ), **metadata )    
    
Unicode = TraitFactory( Unicode )
    
def Bool ( value = False, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitType( bool ), **metadata ) 
    
Bool = TraitFactory( Bool )
    
#--- 'Cast' traits -------------------------------------------------------------

def CInt ( value = 0, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitCastType( int ), **metadata )
    
CInt = TraitFactory( CInt )    
    
def CLong ( value = 0L, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitCastType( long ), **metadata )    
    
CLong = TraitFactory( CLong )    
    
def CFloat ( value = 0.0, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitCastType( float ), **metadata )    
    
CFloat = TraitFactory( CFloat )    
    
def CComplex ( value = 0.0+0.0j, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitCastType( complex ), **metadata )    
    
CComplex = TraitFactory( CComplex )    
    
def CStr ( value = '', **metadata ):
    if 'editor' not in metadata:
        metadata[ 'editor' ] = multi_line_text_editor
    return Trait( value, TraitCastType( str ), **metadata )    
    
CStr = TraitFactory( CStr )    
    
def CUnicode ( value = u'', **metadata ):
    if 'editor' not in metadata:
        metadata[ 'editor' ] = multi_line_text_editor
    return Trait( value, TraitCastType( unicode ), **metadata )    
    
CUnicode = TraitFactory( CUnicode )    
    
def CBool ( value = False, **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitCastType( bool ), **metadata ) 
    
CBool = TraitFactory( CBool )    
    
#--- 'sequence' and 'mapping' traits -------------------------------------------

def List ( trait = None, value = None, minlen = 0, maxlen = sys.maxint,
           items = True, **metadata ):
    metadata.setdefault( 'copy', 'deep' )
    if isinstance( trait, SequenceTypes ):
        trait, value = value, list( trait )
    if value is None:
        value = []
    return Trait( value, TraitList( trait, minlen, maxlen, items ), **metadata )
    
List = TraitFactory( List )    

def Tuple ( *traits, **metadata ):
    if len( traits ) == 0:
        return Trait( (), TraitType( tuple ), **metadata )
    value = None
    if isinstance( traits[0], tuple ):
        value, traits = traits[0], traits[1:]
        if len( traits ) == 0:
            traits = [ Trait( element ) for element in value ]
    tt = TraitTuple( *traits )
    if value is None:
        value = tuple( [ trait.default_value()[1] for trait in tt.traits ] )
    return Trait( value, tt, **metadata )
    
Tuple = TraitFactory( Tuple )    
    
def Dict ( key_trait = None, value_trait = None, value = None, items = True,
           **metadata ):
    if isinstance( key_trait, dict ):
        key_trait, value_trait, value = value_trait, value, key_trait
    if value is None:
        value = {}
    return Trait( value, TraitDict( key_trait, value_trait, items ), 
                  **metadata )
    
Dict = TraitFactory( Dict )    
    
#--- 'array' traits ------------------------------------------------------------

def Array ( typecode = None, shape = None, value = None, **metadata ):
    return _Array( typecode, shape, value, coerce = False, **metadata )
    
Array = TraitFactory( Array )

def CArray ( typecode = None, shape = None, value = None, **metadata ):
    return _Array( typecode, shape, value, coerce = True, **metadata )
    
CArray = TraitFactory( CArray )    

def _Array ( typecode = None, shape = None, value = None, coerce = False, 
             **metadata ):
    from trait_numeric import zeros, Typecodes, TraitArray
    
    if type( typecode ) in SequenceTypes:
        shape, typecode = typecode, shape
        
    if (typecode is not None) and (typecode not in Typecodes):
        raise TraitError, "typecode must be a valid Numeric typecode or None"
        
    if shape is not None:
        if isinstance( shape, SequenceTypes ):
            for item in shape:
                if ((item is None) or (type( item ) is int) or
                    (isinstance( item, SequenceTypes ) and 
                     (len( item ) == 2) and
                     (type( item[0] ) is int) and (item[0] >= 0) and
                     ((item[1] is None) or ((type( item[1] ) is int) and
                       (item[0] <= item[1]))))):
                    continue
                raise TraitError, "shape should be a list or tuple"
        else:
            raise TraitError, "shape should be a list or tuple"
            
    if value is None:
        if shape is None:
            value = zeros( ( 0, ), typecode )
        else:
            size = []
            for item in shape:
                if item is None:
                    item = 1
                elif type( item ) in SequenceTypes:
                    item = item[0]
                size.append( item )
            value = zeros( size, typecode )
            
    return Trait( value, TraitArray( typecode, shape, coerce ), **metadata )
                  
#--- 'instance' traits ---------------------------------------------------------
    
def Instance ( klass, args = None, kw = None, allow_none = False, **metadata ):
    metadata.setdefault( 'copy', 'deep' )
    ti_klass = TraitInstance( klass, or_none = allow_none,
                              module = stack(1)[1][0].f_globals[ '__name__' ] )
    if (args is None) and (kw is None):
        return Trait( None, ti_klass, **metadata )
    if kw is None:
        if type( args ) is dict:
            kw   = args
            args = ()
    elif type( kw ) is not dict:
        raise TraitError, "The 'kw' argument must be a dictionary"
    if type( args ) is not tuple:
        return Trait( args, ti_klass )
    return Trait( _InstanceArgs( args, kw ), ti_klass, **metadata )
    
class _InstanceArgs ( object ):

    def __init__ ( self, args, kw ):
        self.args = args
        self.kw   = kw
        
#--- 'creates a run-time default value' ----------------------------------------

class Default ( object ):
    
    def __init__ ( self, func = None, args = (), kw = None ):
        self.default_value = ( func, args, kw )
        
#--- 'string' traits -----------------------------------------------------------

def Regex ( value = '', regex = '.*', **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitString( regex = regex ), **metadata )
    
Regex = TraitFactory( Regex )    

def String ( value = '', minlen = 0, maxlen = sys.maxint, regex = '', 
             **metadata ):
    return Trait( value, TraitString( minlen = minlen, 
                                      maxlen = maxlen, 
                                      regex  = regex ), **metadata )    
    
String = TraitFactory( String )    

def Code ( value = '', minlen = 0, maxlen = sys.maxint, regex = '', 
               **metadata ):
    if 'editor' not in metadata:
        metadata[ 'editor' ] = code_editor
    return Trait( value, TraitString( minlen = minlen, maxlen = maxlen, 
                                      regex  = regex ), **metadata )    

Code = TraitFactory( Code )                  

def Password ( value = '', minlen = 0, maxlen = sys.maxint, regex = '', 
               **metadata ):
    if 'editor' not in metadata:
        metadata[ 'editor' ] = password_editor
    return Trait( value, TraitString( minlen = minlen, maxlen = maxlen, 
                                      regex  = regex ), **metadata )    

Password = TraitFactory( Password )                  
    
#--- 'file' traits -----------------------------------------------------------

def File ( value = '', filter = None, auto_set = False, **metadata ):
    from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui.editors import FileEditor
    
    return Trait( value, editor = FileEditor( filter   = filter or [],
                                              auto_set = auto_set ),
                  **metadata )
    
File = TraitFactory( File )    

def Directory ( value = '', auto_set = False, **metadata ):
    from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui.editors import DirectoryEditor
    
    return Trait( value, editor = DirectoryEditor( auto_set = auto_set ),
                  **metadata )
    
Directory = TraitFactory( Directory )    
                  
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Factory function for creating range traits:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
def Range ( low = None, high = None, value = None, **metadata ):
    if value is None:
        if low is not None:
            value = low
        else:
            value = high
    return Trait( value, TraitRange( low, high ), **metadata )
    
Range = TraitFactory( Range )    
                  
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Factory function for creating enumerated value traits:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
def Enum ( *values, **metadata ):
    dv = values[0]
    if (len( values ) == 2) and (type( values[1] ) in SequenceTypes):
        values = values[1]
    return Trait( dv, TraitEnum( *values ), **metadata )
    
Enum = TraitFactory( Enum )    
    
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Factory function for creating constant traits:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
def Constant ( value, **metadata ):
    if type( value ) in MutableTypes:
        raise TraitError, \
              "Cannot define a constant using a mutable list or dictionary"
    metadata[ 'type' ] = 'constant'
    return Trait( value, **metadata )

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Factory function for creating C-based events:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

def Event ( *value_type, **metadata ):
    metadata[ 'type' ] = 'event';
    return Trait( *value_type, **metadata )
    
Event = TraitFactory( Event )    
    
#  Handle circular module dependencies:
trait_handlers.Event = Event    
    
def TraitEvent ( *value_type, **metadata ):
    warning( "'TraitEvent' is deprecated, please use 'Event' instead." )
    return Event( *value_type, **metadata )    

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Factory function for creating C-based traits:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

def Trait ( *value_type, **metadata ):
    return _TraitMaker( *value_type, **metadata ).as_ctrait()
       
#  Handle circular module dependencies:
trait_handlers.Trait = Trait       

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  '_TraitMaker' class:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class _TraitMaker ( object ):
    
    # Ctrait type map for special trait types:
    type_map = {
       'event':    2,
       'constant': 7
    }
 
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Initialize the object:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
    def __init__ ( self, *value_type, **metadata ):
        metadata.setdefault( 'type', 'trait' )
        self.define( *value_type, **metadata )
 
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Define the trait:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
        
    def define ( self, *value_type, **metadata ):
        default_value_type = -1
        default_value      = handler = clone = None
        if len( value_type ) > 0:
            default_value = value_type[0]
            value_type    = value_type[1:]
            if ((len( value_type ) == 0) and 
                (type( default_value ) in SequenceTypes)):
                default_value, value_type = default_value[0], default_value
            if len( value_type ) == 0:
                if isinstance( default_value, TraitFactory ):
                    default_value = trait_factory( default_value )
                if default_value in PythonTypes:
                    handler       = TraitType( default_value )
                    default_value = DefaultValues.get( default_value )
                elif isinstance( default_value, CTrait ):
                    clone = default_value
                    default_value_type, default_value = clone.default_value()
                    metadata[ 'type' ] = clone.type
                elif isinstance( default_value, TraitHandler ):
                    handler       = default_value
                    default_value = None
                elif default_value is ThisClass:
                    handler       = ThisClass()
                    default_value = None
                else:
                    typeValue = type( default_value )
                    if typeValue is StringType:
                        string_options = self.extract( metadata, 'min_len',
                                                       'max_len', 'regex' )
                        if len( string_options ) == 0:
                            handler = TraitCastType( typeValue )
                        else:
                            handler = TraitString( **string_options )
                    elif typeValue in TypeTypes:
                        handler = TraitCastType( typeValue )
                    else:
                        handler = TraitInstance( default_value )
                        if default_value is handler.aClass:
                            default_value = DefaultValues.get( default_value )
            else:
                enum  = []
                other = []
                map   = {}
                self.do_list( value_type, enum, map, other )
                if (((len( enum )  == 1) and (enum[0] is None)) and
                    ((len( other ) == 1) and 
                     isinstance( other[0], TraitInstance ))):
                    enum = []
                    other[0].allow_none()
                if len( enum ) > 0:
                    if (((len( map ) + len( other )) == 0) and
                        (default_value not in enum)):
                        enum.insert( 0, default_value )
                    other.append( TraitEnum( enum ) )
                if len( map ) > 0:
                    other.append( TraitMap( map ) )
                if len( other ) == 0:
                    handler = TraitHandler()
                elif len( other ) == 1:
                    handler = other[0]
                    if isinstance( handler, CTrait ):
                        clone, handler = handler, None
                        metadata[ 'type' ] = clone.type
                    elif isinstance( handler, TraitInstance ):
                        if default_value is None:
                            handler.allow_none()
                        elif isinstance( default_value, _InstanceArgs ):
                            default_value_type = 7
                            default_value = ( handler.create_default_value, 
                                default_value.args, default_value.kw ) 
                        elif (len( enum ) == 0) and (len( map ) == 0):
                            aClass    = handler.aClass
                            typeValue = type( default_value )
                            if typeValue is dict:
                                default_value_type = 7
                                default_value = ( aClass, (), default_value )
                            elif not isinstance( default_value, aClass ):
                                if typeValue is not tuple:
                                    default_value = ( default_value, )
                                default_value_type = 7
                                default_value = ( aClass, default_value, None )
                else:
                    for i, item in enumerate( other ):
                        if isinstance( item, CTrait ):
                            if item.type != 'trait':
                                raise TraitError, ("Cannot create a complex "
                                    "trait containing %s trait." % 
                                    add_article( item.type ) )
                            handler = item.handler
                            if handler is None:
                                break
                            other[i] = handler
                    else:
                        handler = TraitCompound( other )
 
        # Save the results:
        self.handler = handler
        self.clone   = clone
        if default_value_type < 0:
            if isinstance( default_value, Default ):
                default_value_type = 7
                default_value      = default_value.default_value
            else:
                if (handler is None) and (clone is not None):
                    handler = clone.handler
                if handler is not None:
                    default_value_type = handler.default_value_type
                    if default_value_type >= 0:
                        if hasattr( handler, 'default_value' ):
                            default_value = handler.default_value(default_value)
                    else:
                        try:
                            default_value = handler.validate( None, '',
                                                              default_value )
                        except:
                            pass
                if default_value_type < 0:
                    default_value_type = _default_value_type( default_value )
        self.default_value_type = default_value_type
        self.default_value      = default_value
        self.metadata           = metadata.copy()
 
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Determine the correct TraitHandler for each item in a list:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
    def do_list ( self, list, enum, map, other ):
        for item in list:
            if item in PythonTypes:
                other.append( TraitType( item ) )
            else:
                if isinstance( item, TraitFactory ):
                    item = trait_factory( item )
                typeItem = type( item )
                if typeItem in ConstantTypes:
                    enum.append( item )
                elif typeItem in SequenceTypes:
                    self.do_list( item, enum, map, other )
                elif typeItem is DictType:
                    map.update( item )
                elif typeItem in CallableTypes:
                    other.append( TraitFunction( item ) )
                elif item is ThisClass:
                    other.append( ThisClass() )
                # fixme: TraitThisClass is deprecated and will be removed.
                elif item is TraitThisClass:
                    warning( "'TraitThisClass' is deprecated, use 'ThisClass' "
                             "instead." )
                    other.append( ThisClass() )
                elif isinstance( item, TraitTypes ):
                    other.append( item )
                else:
                    other.append( TraitInstance( item ) )
                  
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Returns a properly initialized 'CTrait' instance:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  
    def as_ctrait ( self ):
        trait = CTrait( self.type_map.get( self.metadata.get( 'type' ), 0 ) )
        clone = self.clone
        if clone is not None:
            trait.clone( clone )
            if clone.__dict__ is not None:
                trait.__dict__ = clone.__dict__.copy()
        trait.default_value( self.default_value_type, self.default_value )
        handler = self.handler
        if handler is not None:
            trait.handler = handler
            if hasattr( handler, 'fast_validate' ):
                trait.validate( handler.fast_validate )
            else:
                trait.validate( handler.validate )
            if hasattr( handler, 'post_setattr' ):
                trait.post_setattr = handler.post_setattr
        if len( self.metadata ) > 0:
            if trait.__dict__ is None:
                trait.__dict__ = self.metadata
            else:
                trait.__dict__.update( self.metadata )
        return trait
       
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    #  Extract a set of keywords from a dictionary:
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
           
    def extract ( self, from_dict, *keys ):
        to_dict = {}
        for key in keys:
            if key in from_dict:
                to_dict[ key ] = from_dict[ key ]
                del from_dict[ key ]
        return to_dict
       
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Factory function for creating traits with standard Python behavior:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

def TraitPython ( **metadata ):
    metadata.setdefault( 'type', 'python' )
    trait = CTrait( 1 )
    trait.default_value( 0, Undefined )
    trait.__dict__ = metadata.copy()
    return trait

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Factory function for creating C-based trait delegates:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

def Delegate ( delegate, prefix = '', modify = False, **metadata ):
    metadata.setdefault( 'type', 'delegate' )
    if prefix == '':
        prefix_type = 0
    elif prefix[-1:] != '*':
        prefix_type = 1
    else:
        prefix = prefix[:-1]
        if prefix != '':
            prefix_type = 2
        else:
            prefix_type = 3
    trait = CTrait( 3 )
    trait.delegate( delegate, prefix, prefix_type, modify )
    trait.__dict__ = metadata.copy()
    return trait
    
def TraitDelegate ( delegate, prefix = '', modify = False, **metadata ):
    warning( "'TraitDelegate' is deprecated, use 'Delegate' instead." )
    if type( prefix ) is not StringType:
        modify = prefix
        prefix = ''
    return Delegate( delegate, prefix, modify, **metadata )
    
def TraitDelegateSynched ( delegate, prefix = '', modify = False, **metadata ):
    warning( "'TraitDelegateSynched' is deprecated, use 'Delegate' instead." )
    if type( prefix ) is not StringType:
        modify = prefix
        prefix = ''
    return Delegate( delegate, prefix, modify, **metadata )
       
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Factory function for creating C-based trait properties:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        
def Property ( fget = None, fset = None, fvalidate = None, force = False, 
               **metadata ):
    metadata[ 'type' ] = 'property'
    
    # If no parameters specified, must be a forward reference (if not forced):
    if (not force) and (fset is None) and (fvalidate is None):
        if fget is None:
            return ForwardProperty( metadata )
        trait = trait_cast( fget )
        if trait is not None:
            fvalidate = trait.handler
            if fvalidate is not None:
                fvalidate = fvalidate.validate
            return ForwardProperty( metadata, fvalidate ) 
        
    if fget is None: 
        if fset is None:
            fget = _undefined_get
            fset = _undefined_set
        else:
            fget = _write_only
    elif fset is None: 
        fset = _read_only
    n = 0
    if fvalidate is not None:
        n = _arg_count( fvalidate )
    trait = CTrait( 4 )
    trait.property( fget,      _arg_count( fget ),
                    fset,      _arg_count( fset ),
                    fvalidate, n )
    trait.__dict__ = metadata.copy()
    return trait
    
Property = TraitFactory( Property )    

class ForwardProperty ( object ):
    
    def __init__ ( self, metadata, validate = None ):
        self.metadata = metadata.copy()
        self.validate = validate
        
def TraitProperty ( fget = None, fset = None, fvalidate = None ):
    warning( "'TraitProperty' is deprecated, use 'Property' instead." )
    return Property( fget, fset, fvalidate )
    
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Property error handling functions:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
def _write_only ( object, name ):
    raise TraitError, "The '%s' trait of %s instance is 'write only'." % ( 
                      name, class_of( object ) )
    
def _read_only ( object, name, value ):
    raise TraitError, "The '%s' trait of %s instance is 'read only'." % ( 
                      name, class_of( object ) )
    
def _undefined_get ( object, name ):
    raise TraitError, ("The '%s' trait of %s instance is a property that has "
                       "no 'get' or 'set' method") % ( 
                       name, class_of( object ) )
    
def _undefined_set ( object, name, value ):
    _undefined_get( object, name )

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Dictionary used to handler return type mapping special cases:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SpecialNames = {
   'int':     trait_factory( Int ),
   'long':    trait_factory( Long ),
   'float':   trait_factory( Float ),
   'complex': trait_factory( Complex ),
   'str':     trait_factory( Str ),
   'unicode': trait_factory( Unicode ),
   'bool':    trait_factory( Bool ),
   'list':    trait_factory( List ),
   'tuple':   trait_factory( Tuple ),
   'dict':    trait_factory( Dict )
}
    
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Create predefined, reusable trait instances:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

AnyValue        = TraitAny()            # Deprecated synonym for 'Any'
false           = Bool                  # Synonym for Bool
true            = Bool( True )          # Boolean values only, default = True
Function        = Trait( FunctionType ) # Function values only
Method          = Trait( MethodType )   # Method values only
Class           = Trait( ClassType )    # Class values only
Module          = Trait( ModuleType )   # Module values only
Type            = Trait( TypeType )     # Type values only
This            = Trait( ThisClass )    # Containing class values only
self            = Trait( Self, ThisClass ) # Same as above, default = self
Python          = TraitPython()         # Standard Python value
DefaultPythonTrait = Python             # Deprecated synonym for 'Python'
Disallow        = CTrait( 5 )           # Disallow read/write access  
ReadOnly        = CTrait( 6 )           # Read only access (i.e. 'write once')
ReadOnly.default_value( 0, Undefined )  # This allows it to be written once
undefined       = Any( Undefined )      # No type checking, default = Undefined
missing         = CTrait( 0 )           # Define a missing parameter trait
missing.handler = TraitHandler()
missing.default_value( 1, Missing )
generic_trait   = CTrait( 8 )           # Generic trait with 'object' behavior
Callable        = Trait( TraitCallable() ) # Callable values only

# List traits:
ListInt        = List( int )           # List of int values
ListFloat      = List( float )         # List of float values
ListStr        = List( str )           # List of string values
ListUnicode    = List( unicode )       # List of Unicode string values
ListComplex    = List( complex )       # List of complex values
ListBool       = List( bool )          # List of boolean values
ListFunction   = List( FunctionType )  # List of function values
ListMethod     = List( MethodType )    # List of method values
ListClass      = List( ClassType )     # List of class values
ListInstance   = List( InstanceType )  # List of instance values
ListThis       = List( ThisClass )     # List of container type values

# Dictionary traits:
DictStrAny     = Dict( str, Any )      # Dict of string: any values
DictStrStr     = Dict( str, str )      # Dict of string: string values
DictStrInt     = Dict( str, int )      # Dict of string: integer values
DictStrLong    = Dict( str, long )     # Dict of string: long int values
DictStrFloat   = Dict( str, float )    # Dict of string: float values
DictStrBool    = Dict( str, bool )     # Dict of string: boolean values
DictStrList    = Dict( str, list )     # Dict of string: list values

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  User interface related color and font traits:
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

def Color ( *args, **metadata ):
    from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui import ColorTrait
    return ColorTrait( *args, **metadata )
    
Color = TraitFactory( Color )

def RGBColor ( *args, **metadata ):
    from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui import RGBColorTrait
    return RGBColorTrait( *args, **metadata )
    
RGBColor = TraitFactory( RGBColor )

def RGBAColor ( *args, **metadata ):
    from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui import RGBAColorTrait
    return RGBAColorTrait( *args, **metadata )
    
RGBAColor = TraitFactory( RGBAColor )
    
def Font ( *args, **metadata ):
    from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui import FontTrait
    return FontTrait( *args, **metadata )
    
Font = TraitFactory( Font )

def KivaFont ( *args, **metadata ):
    from matplotlib.enthought.traits.ui import KivaFontTrait
    return KivaFontTrait( *args, **metadata )
    
KivaFont = TraitFactory( KivaFont )
    

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