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cxx_extensions.cxx

#include "CXX/Extensions.hxx"
#include "CXX/Exception.hxx"

#include <assert.h>

namespace Py 
{
//================================================================================
//
//    Implementation of MethodTable
//
//================================================================================

PyMethodDef MethodTable::method( const char* method_name, PyCFunction f, int flags, const char* doc ) 
      {
      PyMethodDef m;
      m.ml_name = const_cast<char*>( method_name );
      m.ml_meth = f;
      m.ml_flags = flags;
      m.ml_doc = const_cast<char*>( doc );
      return m;
      }

MethodTable::MethodTable()
      {
      t.push_back( method( 0, 0, 0, 0 ) );
      mt = 0;
      }

MethodTable::~MethodTable()
      {
      delete [] mt;
      }

void MethodTable::add( const char* method_name, PyCFunction f, const char* doc, int flag )
      {
      if( !mt )
            {
            t.insert( t.end()-1, method( method_name, f, flag, doc ) );
            }
      else
            {
            throw RuntimeError( "Too late to add a module method!" );
            }
      }

PyMethodDef* MethodTable::table()
      {    
      if( !mt )
            {
            int t1size = t.size();
            mt = new PyMethodDef[t1size];
            int j = 0;
            for( std::vector<PyMethodDef>::iterator i = t.begin(); i != t.end(); i++ )
                  {
                  mt[j++] = *i;
                  }
            }
      return mt;
      }

//================================================================================
//
//    Implementation of ExtensionModule
//
//================================================================================
ExtensionModuleBase::ExtensionModuleBase( const char *name )
      : module_name( name )
      , full_module_name( __Py_PackageContext() != NULL ? std::string( __Py_PackageContext() ) : module_name )
      , method_table()
      {}

ExtensionModuleBase::~ExtensionModuleBase()
      {}

const std::string &ExtensionModuleBase::name() const
      {
      return module_name;
      }

const std::string &ExtensionModuleBase::fullName() const
      {
      return full_module_name;
      }

class ExtensionModuleBasePtr : public PythonExtension<ExtensionModuleBasePtr>
      {
public:
      ExtensionModuleBasePtr( ExtensionModuleBase *_module )
            : module( _module )
            {}
      virtual ~ExtensionModuleBasePtr()
            {}

      ExtensionModuleBase *module;
      };


void ExtensionModuleBase::initialize( const char *module_doc )
      {
      PyObject *module_ptr = new ExtensionModuleBasePtr( this );

      Py_InitModule4
      (
      const_cast<char *>( module_name.c_str() ),      // name
      method_table.table(),                     // methods
      const_cast<char *>( module_doc ),         // docs
      module_ptr,                         // pass to functions as "self"
      PYTHON_API_VERSION                        // API version
      );
      }

Py::Module ExtensionModuleBase::module(void) const
      {
      return Module( full_module_name );
      }

Py::Dict ExtensionModuleBase::moduleDictionary(void) const
      {
      return module().getDict();
      }

//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

//================================================================================
//
//    Implementation of PythonType
//
//================================================================================

extern "C"
      {
      static void standard_dealloc(PyObject* p);
      //
      // All the following functions redirect the call from Python
      // onto the matching virtual function in PythonExtensionBase
      //
      static int print_handler (PyObject*, FILE *, int);
      static PyObject* getattr_handler (PyObject*, char*);
      static int setattr_handler (PyObject*, char*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* getattro_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static int setattro_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static int compare_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* repr_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* str_handler (PyObject*);
      static long hash_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* call_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*, PyObject*);
        static PyObject* iter_handler (PyObject*);
        static PyObject* iternext_handler (PyObject*);

      // Sequence methods
      static Py_ssize_t sequence_length_handler(PyObject*);
      static PyObject* sequence_concat_handler(PyObject*,PyObject*);
      static PyObject* sequence_repeat_handler(PyObject*, Py_ssize_t);
      static PyObject* sequence_item_handler(PyObject*, Py_ssize_t);
      static PyObject* sequence_slice_handler(PyObject*, Py_ssize_t,
                                                Py_ssize_t);
      static int sequence_ass_item_handler(PyObject*, Py_ssize_t, PyObject*);
      static int sequence_ass_slice_handler(PyObject*, Py_ssize_t,
                                              Py_ssize_t, PyObject*);
      // Mapping
      static Py_ssize_t mapping_length_handler(PyObject*);
      static PyObject* mapping_subscript_handler(PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static int mapping_ass_subscript_handler(PyObject*, PyObject*, PyObject*);

      // Numeric methods
      static int number_nonzero_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_negative_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_positive_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_absolute_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_invert_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_int_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_float_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_long_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_oct_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_hex_handler (PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_add_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_subtract_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_multiply_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_divide_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_remainder_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_divmod_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_lshift_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_rshift_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_and_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_xor_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_or_handler (PyObject*, PyObject*);
      static PyObject* number_power_handler(PyObject*, PyObject*, PyObject*);

      // Buffer
      static Py_ssize_t buffer_getreadbuffer_handler (PyObject*, Py_ssize_t, void**);
      static Py_ssize_t buffer_getwritebuffer_handler (PyObject*, Py_ssize_t, void**);
      static Py_ssize_t buffer_getsegcount_handler (PyObject*, Py_ssize_t*);
      };


extern "C" void standard_dealloc( PyObject* p )
      {
      PyMem_DEL( p );
      }

void PythonType::supportSequenceType()
      {
      if( !sequence_table )
            {
            sequence_table = new PySequenceMethods;
            memset( sequence_table, 0, sizeof( PySequenceMethods ) );   // ensure new fields are 0
            table->tp_as_sequence = sequence_table;
            sequence_table->sq_length = sequence_length_handler;
            sequence_table->sq_concat = sequence_concat_handler;
            sequence_table->sq_repeat = sequence_repeat_handler;
            sequence_table->sq_item = sequence_item_handler;
            sequence_table->sq_slice = sequence_slice_handler;

            sequence_table->sq_ass_item = sequence_ass_item_handler;    // BAS setup seperately?
            sequence_table->sq_ass_slice = sequence_ass_slice_handler;  // BAS setup seperately?
            }
      }

void PythonType::supportMappingType()
      {
      if( !mapping_table )
            {
            mapping_table = new PyMappingMethods;
            memset( mapping_table, 0, sizeof( PyMappingMethods ) );   // ensure new fields are 0
            table->tp_as_mapping = mapping_table;
            mapping_table->mp_length = mapping_length_handler;
            mapping_table->mp_subscript = mapping_subscript_handler;
            mapping_table->mp_ass_subscript = mapping_ass_subscript_handler;  // BAS setup seperately?
            }
      }

void PythonType::supportNumberType()
      {
      if( !number_table )
            {
            number_table = new PyNumberMethods;
            memset( number_table, 0, sizeof( PyNumberMethods ) );   // ensure new fields are 0
            table->tp_as_number = number_table;
            number_table->nb_add = number_add_handler;
            number_table->nb_subtract = number_subtract_handler;
            number_table->nb_multiply = number_multiply_handler;
            number_table->nb_divide = number_divide_handler;
            number_table->nb_remainder = number_remainder_handler;
            number_table->nb_divmod = number_divmod_handler;
            number_table->nb_power = number_power_handler;
            number_table->nb_negative = number_negative_handler;
            number_table->nb_positive = number_positive_handler;
            number_table->nb_absolute = number_absolute_handler;
            number_table->nb_nonzero = number_nonzero_handler;
            number_table->nb_invert = number_invert_handler;
            number_table->nb_lshift = number_lshift_handler;
            number_table->nb_rshift = number_rshift_handler;
            number_table->nb_and = number_and_handler;
            number_table->nb_xor = number_xor_handler;
            number_table->nb_or = number_or_handler;
            number_table->nb_coerce = 0;
            number_table->nb_int = number_int_handler;
            number_table->nb_long = number_long_handler;
            number_table->nb_float = number_float_handler;
            number_table->nb_oct = number_oct_handler;
            number_table->nb_hex = number_hex_handler;
            }
      }

void PythonType::supportBufferType()
      {
      if( !buffer_table )
            {
            buffer_table = new PyBufferProcs;
            memset( buffer_table, 0, sizeof( PyBufferProcs ) );   // ensure new fields are 0
            table->tp_as_buffer = buffer_table;
            buffer_table->bf_getreadbuffer = buffer_getreadbuffer_handler;
            buffer_table->bf_getwritebuffer = buffer_getwritebuffer_handler;
            buffer_table->bf_getsegcount = buffer_getsegcount_handler;
            }
      }

// if you define one sequence method you must define 
// all of them except the assigns

PythonType::PythonType( size_t basic_size, int itemsize, const char *default_name )
      : table( new PyTypeObject )
      , sequence_table( NULL )
      , mapping_table( NULL )
      , number_table( NULL )
      , buffer_table( NULL )
      {
      memset( table, 0, sizeof( PyTypeObject ) );   // ensure new fields are 0
      *reinterpret_cast<PyObject*>( table ) = py_object_initializer;
      table->ob_type = _Type_Type();
      table->ob_size = 0;
      table->tp_name = const_cast<char *>( default_name );
      table->tp_basicsize = basic_size;
      table->tp_itemsize = itemsize;
      table->tp_dealloc = ( destructor ) standard_dealloc;
      table->tp_print = 0;
      table->tp_getattr = 0;
      table->tp_setattr = 0;
      table->tp_compare = 0;
      table->tp_repr = 0;
      table->tp_as_number = 0;
      table->tp_as_sequence = 0;
      table->tp_as_mapping =  0;
      table->tp_hash = 0;
      table->tp_call = 0;
      table->tp_str = 0;
      table->tp_getattro = 0;
      table->tp_setattro = 0;
      table->tp_as_buffer = 0;
      table->tp_flags = Py_TPFLAGS_DEFAULT;
      table->tp_doc = 0;
#if PY_MAJOR_VERSION > 2 || (PY_MAJOR_VERSION == 2 && PY_MINOR_VERSION >= 0)
      // first use in 2.0
      table->tp_traverse = 0L;
      table->tp_clear = 0L;
#else
      table->tp_xxx5 = 0L;
      table->tp_xxx6 = 0L;
#endif
#if PY_MAJOR_VERSION > 2 || (PY_MAJOR_VERSION == 2 && PY_MINOR_VERSION >= 1)
      // first defined in 2.1
      table->tp_richcompare = 0L;
      table->tp_weaklistoffset = 0L;
#else
      table->tp_xxx7 = 0L;
      table->tp_xxx8 = 0L;
#endif

#if PY_MAJOR_VERSION > 2 || (PY_MAJOR_VERSION == 2 && PY_MINOR_VERSION >= 2)
      // first defined in 2.3
      table->tp_iter = 0L;
      table->tp_iternext = 0L;
#endif

#ifdef COUNT_ALLOCS
      table->tp_alloc = 0;
      table->tp_free = 0;
      table->tp_maxalloc = 0;
      table->tp_next = 0;
#endif
      }

PythonType::~PythonType( )
      {
      delete table;
      delete sequence_table;
      delete mapping_table;
      delete number_table;
      delete buffer_table;
      };

PyTypeObject* PythonType::type_object( ) const
      {return table;}

void PythonType::name( const char* nam )
      {
      table->tp_name = const_cast<char *>( nam );
      }

const char *PythonType::getName() const
      {
      return table->tp_name;
      }

void PythonType::doc( const char* d )
      {
      table->tp_doc = const_cast<char *>( d );
      }

const char *PythonType::getDoc() const
      {
      return table->tp_doc;
      }

void PythonType::dealloc( void( *f )( PyObject* ))
      {
      table->tp_dealloc = f;
      }

void PythonType::supportPrint()
      {
      table->tp_print = print_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportGetattr()
      {
      table->tp_getattr = getattr_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportSetattr()
      {
      table->tp_setattr = setattr_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportGetattro()
      {
      table->tp_getattro = getattro_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportSetattro()
      {
      table->tp_setattro = setattro_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportCompare()
      {
      table->tp_compare = compare_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportRepr()
      {
      table->tp_repr = repr_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportStr()
      {
      table->tp_str = str_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportHash()
      {
      table->tp_hash = hash_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportCall()
      {
      table->tp_call = call_handler;
      }

void PythonType::supportIter()
      {
      table->tp_iter = iter_handler;
        table->tp_iternext = iternext_handler;
      }

//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
//    Handlers
//
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
extern "C" int print_handler( PyObject *self, FILE *fp, int flags )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->print( fp, flags );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* getattr_handler( PyObject *self, char *name )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->getattr( name ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" int setattr_handler( PyObject *self, char *name, PyObject *value )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->setattr( name, Py::Object( value ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* getattro_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *name )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->getattro( Py::Object( name ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" int setattro_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *name, PyObject *value )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->setattro( Py::Object( name ), Py::Object( value ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" int compare_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->compare( Py::Object( other ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* repr_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->repr() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* str_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->str() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" long hash_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->hash();
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* call_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *args, PyObject *kw )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->call( Py::Object( args ), Py::Object( kw ) ) );
            if( kw != NULL )
            return new_reference_to( p->call( Py::Object( args ), Py::Object( kw ) ) );
            else
            return new_reference_to( p->call( Py::Object( args ), Py::Object() ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* iter_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->iter() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* iternext_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->iternext();  // might be a NULL ptr on end of iteration
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }


// Sequence methods
extern "C" Py_ssize_t sequence_length_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->sequence_length();
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* sequence_concat_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->sequence_concat( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* sequence_repeat_handler( PyObject *self, Py_ssize_t count )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->sequence_repeat( count ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* sequence_item_handler( PyObject *self, Py_ssize_t index )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->sequence_item( index ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* sequence_slice_handler( PyObject *self, Py_ssize_t first,
                                             Py_ssize_t last )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->sequence_slice( first, last ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" int sequence_ass_item_handler( PyObject *self, Py_ssize_t index, PyObject *value )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->sequence_ass_item( index, Py::Object( value ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" int sequence_ass_slice_handler( PyObject *self, Py_ssize_t first, Py_ssize_t last, PyObject *value )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->sequence_ass_slice( first, last, Py::Object( value ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

// Mapping
extern "C" Py_ssize_t mapping_length_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->mapping_length();
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* mapping_subscript_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *key )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->mapping_subscript( Py::Object( key ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" int mapping_ass_subscript_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *key, PyObject *value )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->mapping_ass_subscript( Py::Object( key ), Py::Object( value ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

// Number
extern "C" int number_nonzero_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->number_nonzero();
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_negative_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_negative() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_positive_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_positive() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_absolute_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_absolute() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_invert_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_invert() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_int_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_int() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_float_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_float() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_long_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_long() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_oct_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_oct() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_hex_handler( PyObject *self )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_hex() );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_add_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_add( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_subtract_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_subtract( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_multiply_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_multiply( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_divide_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_divide( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_remainder_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_remainder( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_divmod_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_divmod( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_lshift_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_lshift( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_rshift_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_rshift( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_and_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_and( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_xor_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_xor( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_or_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *other )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_or( Py::Object( other ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject* number_power_handler( PyObject *self, PyObject *x1, PyObject *x2 )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return new_reference_to( p->number_power( Py::Object( x1 ), Py::Object( x2 ) ) );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return NULL;      // indicate error
            }
      }

// Buffer
extern "C" Py_ssize_t buffer_getreadbuffer_handler( PyObject *self, Py_ssize_t index, void **pp )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->buffer_getreadbuffer( index, pp );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" Py_ssize_t buffer_getwritebuffer_handler( PyObject *self, Py_ssize_t index, void **pp )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->buffer_getwritebuffer( index, pp );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }

extern "C" Py_ssize_t buffer_getsegcount_handler( PyObject *self, Py_ssize_t *count )
      {
      try
            {
            PythonExtensionBase *p = static_cast<PythonExtensionBase *>( self );
            return p->buffer_getsegcount( count );
            }
      catch( Py::Exception & )
            {
            return -1;  // indicate error
            }
      }


//================================================================================
//
//    Implementation of PythonExtensionBase
//
//================================================================================
#define missing_method( method ) \
throw RuntimeError( "Extension object does not support method " #method );

PythonExtensionBase::PythonExtensionBase()
      {
      }

PythonExtensionBase::~PythonExtensionBase()
      {
        //assert( ob_refcnt == 0 );
      }

int PythonExtensionBase::print( FILE *, int )
      { missing_method( print ); return -1; }

int PythonExtensionBase::setattr( const char*, const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( setattr ); return -1; }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::getattro( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( getattro ); return Py::Nothing(); }

int PythonExtensionBase::setattro( const Py::Object &, const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( setattro ); return -1; }

int PythonExtensionBase::compare( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( compare ); return -1; }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::repr()
      { missing_method( repr ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::str()
      { missing_method( str ); return Py::Nothing(); }

long PythonExtensionBase::hash()
      { missing_method( hash ); return -1; }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::call( const Py::Object &, const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( call ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::iter()
      { missing_method( iter ); return Py::Nothing(); }

PyObject* PythonExtensionBase::iternext()
      { missing_method( iternext ); return NULL; }


// Sequence methods
int PythonExtensionBase::sequence_length()
      { missing_method( sequence_length ); return -1; }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::sequence_concat( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( sequence_concat ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::sequence_repeat( int )
      { missing_method( sequence_repeat ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::sequence_item( int )
      { missing_method( sequence_item ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::sequence_slice( int, int )
      { missing_method( sequence_slice ); return Py::Nothing(); }

int PythonExtensionBase::sequence_ass_item( int, const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( sequence_ass_item ); return -1; }

int PythonExtensionBase::sequence_ass_slice( int, int, const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( sequence_ass_slice ); return -1; }


// Mapping
int PythonExtensionBase::mapping_length()
      { missing_method( mapping_length ); return -1; }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::mapping_subscript( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( mapping_subscript ); return Py::Nothing(); }

int PythonExtensionBase::mapping_ass_subscript( const Py::Object &, const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( mapping_ass_subscript ); return -1; }


// Number
int PythonExtensionBase::number_nonzero()
      { missing_method( number_nonzero ); return -1; }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_negative()
      { missing_method( number_negative ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_positive()
      { missing_method( number_positive ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_absolute()
      { missing_method( number_absolute ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_invert()
      { missing_method( number_invert ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_int()
      { missing_method( number_int ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_float()
      { missing_method( number_float ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_long()
      { missing_method( number_long ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_oct()
      { missing_method( number_oct ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_hex()
      { missing_method( number_hex ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_add( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_add ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_subtract( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_subtract ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_multiply( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_multiply ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_divide( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_divide ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_remainder( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_remainder ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_divmod( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_divmod ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_lshift( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_lshift ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_rshift( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_rshift ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_and( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_and ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_xor( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_xor ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_or( const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_or ); return Py::Nothing(); }

Py::Object PythonExtensionBase::number_power( const Py::Object &, const Py::Object & )
      { missing_method( number_power ); return Py::Nothing(); }


// Buffer
Py_ssize_t PythonExtensionBase::buffer_getreadbuffer( Py_ssize_t, void** )
      { missing_method( buffer_getreadbuffer ); return -1; }

Py_ssize_t PythonExtensionBase::buffer_getwritebuffer( Py_ssize_t, void** )
      { missing_method( buffer_getwritebuffer ); return -1; }

Py_ssize_t PythonExtensionBase::buffer_getsegcount( Py_ssize_t* )
      { missing_method( buffer_getsegcount ); return -1; }

//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
//    Method call handlers for
//          PythonExtensionBase
//          ExtensionModuleBase
//
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

extern "C" PyObject *method_keyword_call_handler( PyObject *_self_and_name_tuple, PyObject *_args, PyObject *_keywords )
      {
      try
            {
            Tuple self_and_name_tuple( _self_and_name_tuple );

            PyObject *self_in_cobject = self_and_name_tuple[0].ptr();
            void *self_as_void = PyCObject_AsVoidPtr( self_in_cobject );
            if( self_as_void == NULL )
            return NULL;

            ExtensionModuleBase *self = static_cast<ExtensionModuleBase *>( self_as_void );

            String py_name( self_and_name_tuple[1] );
            std::string name( py_name.as_std_string() );

            Tuple args( _args );
            if( _keywords == NULL )
                  {
                  Dict keywords;    // pass an empty dict

                  Object result( self->invoke_method_keyword( name, args, keywords ) );
                  return new_reference_to( result.ptr() );
                  }
            else
                  {
                  Dict keywords( _keywords );

                  Object result( self->invoke_method_keyword( name, args, keywords ) );
                  return new_reference_to( result.ptr() );
                  }
            }
      catch( Exception & )
            {
            return 0;
            }
      }

extern "C" PyObject *method_varargs_call_handler( PyObject *_self_and_name_tuple, PyObject *_args )
      {
      try
            {
            Tuple self_and_name_tuple( _self_and_name_tuple );

            PyObject *self_in_cobject = self_and_name_tuple[0].ptr();
            void *self_as_void = PyCObject_AsVoidPtr( self_in_cobject );
            if( self_as_void == NULL )
            return NULL;

            ExtensionModuleBase *self = static_cast<ExtensionModuleBase *>( self_as_void );

            String py_name( self_and_name_tuple[1] );
            std::string name( py_name.as_std_string() );

            Tuple args( _args );

            Object result( self->invoke_method_varargs( name, args ) );

            return new_reference_to( result.ptr() );
            }
      catch( Exception & )
            {
            return 0;
            }
      }

extern "C" void do_not_dealloc( void * )
      {}


//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
//    ExtensionExceptionType
//
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ExtensionExceptionType::ExtensionExceptionType()
      : Py::Object()
      {
      }

void ExtensionExceptionType::init( ExtensionModuleBase &module, const std::string& name )
      {
      std::string module_name( module.fullName() );
      module_name += ".";
      module_name += name;

      set( PyErr_NewException( const_cast<char *>( module_name.c_str() ), NULL, NULL ), true );
      }

void ExtensionExceptionType::init( ExtensionModuleBase &module, const std::string& name, ExtensionExceptionType &parent)
      {
      std::string module_name( module.fullName() );
      module_name += ".";
      module_name += name;

      set( PyErr_NewException( const_cast<char *>( module_name.c_str() ), parent.ptr(), NULL ), true );
      }
 
ExtensionExceptionType::~ExtensionExceptionType()
      {
      }

Exception::Exception( ExtensionExceptionType &exception, const std::string& reason )
      {
      PyErr_SetString (exception.ptr(), reason.c_str());
      }

Exception::Exception( ExtensionExceptionType &exception, Object &reason )
      {
      PyErr_SetObject (exception.ptr(), reason.ptr());
      }

Exception::Exception( PyObject* exception, Object &reason )
      {
      PyErr_SetObject (exception, reason.ptr());
      }           

}     // end of namespace Py

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