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This is an object-orient plotting library.

A procedural interface is provided by the companion pylab
module, which may be imported directly, e.g.

    from pylab import *

or using ipython:

    ipython -pylab

For the most part, direct use of the object-oriented library
is encouraged when programming rather than working
interactively.  The exceptions are the pylab commands
figure(), subplot(), show(), and savefig(), which can
greatly simplify scripting.

Modules include:
    axes: defines the Axes class.  Most pylab commands are
        wrappers for Axes methods.  The axes module is the
        highest level of OO access to the library.
    figure: defines Figure class.
    artist: defines the Artist base class for all classes
        that draw things.
    line: defines Line2D class for drawing lines and markers
    patches: defines classes for drawing polygons
    text: defines Text, TextWithDash, and Annotate classes
    image: defines AxesImage and FigureImage classes
    collections: classes for efficient drawing of groups of
        lines or polygons
    colors: classes for interpreting color specifications
        and for making colormaps
    cm: colormaps and the ScalarMappable mixin class for
        providing color mapping functionality to other
    ticker: classes for calculating tick mark locations and
        for formatting tick labels
    backends: a subpackage with modules for various gui
        libraries and output formats

The base matplotlib namespace includes:
    rcParams: a dictionary of default configuration
        settings.  It is initialized by code which may be
        overridded by a matplotlibrc file.
    rc(): a function for setting groups of rcParams values
    use(): a function for setting the matplotlib backend.
        If used, this function must be called immediately
        after importing matplotlib for the first time.  In
        particular, it must be called *before* importing
        pylab (if pylab is imported).

matplotlib is written by John D. Hunter (jdh2358 at
gmail.com and a host of others).
from __future__ import generators

__version__  = '0.91.2'
__revision__ = '$Revision: 4802 $'
__date__     = '$Date: 2008-01-06 12:10:34 -0500 (Sun, 6 Jan 2008) $'

import md5, os, re, shutil, sys, warnings
import distutils.sysconfig


# Needed for toolkit setuptools support
if 0:
    except ImportError:
        pass # must not have setuptools

if not hasattr(sys, 'argv'):  # for modpython
    sys.argv = ['modpython']

Manage user customizations through a rc file.

The default file location is given in the following order

  - environment variable MATPLOTLIBRC

  - HOME/.matplotlib/matplotlibrc if HOME is defined

  - PATH/matplotlibrc where PATH is the return value of

import sys, os, tempfile

from rcsetup import defaultParams, validate_backend, validate_toolbar
from rcsetup import validate_cairo_format

major, minor1, minor2, s, tmp = sys.version_info
_python23 = major>=2 and minor1>=3

_havemath = _python23

    import datetime
    import dateutil
    import pytz
except ImportError: _havedate = False
else: _havedate = True

#    import pkg_resources # pkg_resources is part of setuptools
#except ImportError: _have_pkg_resources = False
#else: _have_pkg_resources = True

if not _python23:
    def enumerate(seq):
         for i in range(len(seq)):
             yield i, seq[i]

def is_string_like(obj):
    if hasattr(obj, 'shape'): return 0
    try: obj + ''
    except (TypeError, ValueError): return 0
    return 1

00127 def _is_writable_dir(p):
    p is a string pointing to a putative writable dir -- return True p
    is such a string, else False
    try: p + ''  # test is string like
    except TypeError: return False
        t = tempfile.TemporaryFile(dir=p)
    except OSError: return False
    else: return True

00141 class Verbose:
    A class to handle reporting.  Set the fileo attribute to any file
    instance to handle the output.  Default is sys.stdout
    levels = ('silent', 'helpful', 'debug', 'debug-annoying')
    vald = dict( [(level, i) for i,level in enumerate(levels)])

    # parse the verbosity from the command line; flags look like
    # --verbose-silent or --verbose-helpful
    _commandLineVerbose = None

    for arg in sys.argv[1:]:
        if not arg.startswith('--verbose-'): continue
        _commandLineVerbose = arg[10:]

    def __init__(self):
        self.fileo = sys.stdout

    def set_level(self, level):
        'set the verbosity to one of the Verbose.levels strings'

        if self._commandLineVerbose is not None:
            level = self._commandLineVerbose
        if level not in self.levels:
            raise ValueError('Illegal verbose string "%s".  Legal values are %s'%(level, self.levels))
        self.level = level

    def set_fileo(self, fname):
        std = {
            'sys.stdout': sys.stdout,
            'sys.stderr': sys.stderr,
        if fname in std:
            self.fileo = std[fname]
                fileo = file(fname, 'w')
            except IOError:
                raise ValueError('Verbose object could not open log file "%s" for writing.\nCheck your matplotlibrc verbose.fileo setting'%fname)
                self.fileo = fileo

00185     def report(self, s, level='helpful'):
        print message s to self.fileo if self.level>=level.  Return
        value indicates whether a message was issued

        if self.ge(level):
            print >>self.fileo, s
            return True
        return False

00196     def wrap(self, fmt, func, level='helpful', always=True):
        return a callable function that wraps func and reports it
        output through the verbose handler if current verbosity level
        is higher than level

        if always is True, the report will occur on every function
        call; otherwise only on the first time the function is called
        assert(callable, func)
        def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
            ret = func(*args, **kwargs)

            if (always or not wrapper._spoke):
                spoke = self.report(fmt%ret, level)
                if not wrapper._spoke: wrapper._spoke = spoke
            return ret
        wrapper._spoke = False
        wrapper.__doc__ = func.__doc__
        return wrapper

    def ge(self, level):
        'return true if self.level is >= level'
        return self.vald[self.level]>=self.vald[level]


def checkdep_dvipng():
        stdin, stdout = os.popen4('dvipng -version')
        line = stdout.readlines()[1]
        v = line.split()[-1]
        return v
    except (IndexError, ValueError):
        return None

def checkdep_ghostscript():
        if sys.platform == 'win32':
            command = 'gswin32c --version'
            command = 'gs --version'
        stdin, stdout = os.popen4(command)
        v = stdout.read()[:-1]
        vtest = '.'.join(v.split('.')[:2]) # deal with version numbers like '7.07.1'
        return vtest
    except (IndexError, ValueError):
        return None

def checkdep_tex():
        stdin, stdout = os.popen4('tex -version')
        line = stdout.readlines()[0]
        pattern = '3\.1\d+'
        match = re.search(pattern, line)
        v = match.group(0)
        return v
    except (IndexError, ValueError, AttributeError):
        return None

def checkdep_pdftops():
        stdin, stdout = os.popen4('pdftops -v')
        for line in stdout.readlines():
            if 'version' in line:
                v = line.split()[-1]
        return v
    except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError):
        return None

def compare_versions(a, b):
    "return True if a is greater than b"
    if a:
        a = [int(i) for i in a.split('.')]
        b = [int(i) for i in b.split('.')]
        if a[0]>b[0]: return True
        elif (a[0]==b[0]) and (a[1]>=b[1]): return True
        else: return False
    else: return False

def checkdep_ps_distiller(s):
    if not s:
        return False

    flag = True
    gs_req = '7.07'
    gs_sugg = '7.07'
    gs_v = checkdep_ghostscript()
    if compare_versions(gs_v, gs_sugg): pass
    elif compare_versions(gs_v, gs_req):
        verbose.report(('ghostscript-%s found. ghostscript-%s or later '
                        'is recommended to use the ps.usedistiller option.') % (gs_v, gs_sugg))
        flag = False
        warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc ps.usedistiller option can not be used '
                       'unless ghostscript-%s or later is installed on your system') % gs_req)

    if s == 'xpdf':
        pdftops_req = '3.0'
        pdftops_v = checkdep_pdftops()
        if compare_versions(pdftops_v, pdftops_req): pass
            flag = False
            warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc ps.usedistiller can not be set to '
                           'xpdf unless xpdf-%s or later is installed on your system') % pdftops_req)

    if flag:
        return s
        return False

def checkdep_usetex(s):
    if not s:
        return False

    tex_req = '3.1415'
    gs_req = '7.07'
    gs_sugg = '7.07'
    dvipng_req = '1.5'
    flag = True

    tex_v = checkdep_tex()
    if compare_versions(tex_v, tex_req): pass
        flag = False
        warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc text.usetex option can not be used '
                       'unless TeX-%s or later is '
                       'installed on your system') % tex_req)

    dvipng_v = checkdep_dvipng()
    if compare_versions(dvipng_v, dvipng_req): pass
        flag = False
        warnings.warn( 'matplotlibrc text.usetex can not be used with *Agg '
                       'backend unless dvipng-1.5 or later is '
                       'installed on your system')

    gs_v = checkdep_ghostscript()
    if compare_versions(gs_v, gs_sugg): pass
    elif compare_versions(gs_v, gs_req):
        verbose.report(('ghostscript-%s found. ghostscript-%s or later is '
                        'recommended for use with the text.usetex '
                        'option.') % (gs_v, gs_sugg))
        flag = False
        warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc text.usetex can not be used '
                       'unless ghostscript-%s or later is '
                       'installed on your system') % gs_req)

    return flag

00354 def _get_home():
    """Find user's home directory if possible.
    Otherwise raise error.

    :see:  http://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-list/2005-February/263921.html
    if not os.path.isdir(path):
        for evar in ('HOME', 'USERPROFILE', 'TMP'):
                path = os.environ[evar]
                if os.path.isdir(path):
            except: pass
    if path:
        return path
        raise RuntimeError('please define environment variable $HOME')

get_home = verbose.wrap('$HOME=%s', _get_home, always=False)

00381 def _get_configdir():
    Return the string representing the configuration dir.

    default is HOME/.matplotlib.  you can override this with the
    MPLCONFIGDIR environment variable

    configdir = os.environ.get('MPLCONFIGDIR')
    if configdir is not None:
        if not _is_writable_dir(configdir):
            raise RuntimeError('Could not write to MPLCONFIGDIR="%s"'%configdir)
        return configdir

    h = get_home()
    p = os.path.join(get_home(), '.matplotlib')

    if os.path.exists(p):
        if not _is_writable_dir(p):
            raise RuntimeError("'%s' is not a writable dir; you must set %s/.matplotlib to be a writable dir.  You can also set environment variable MPLCONFIGDIR to any writable directory where you want matplotlib data stored "%h)
        if not _is_writable_dir(h):
            raise RuntimeError("Failed to create %s/.matplotlib; consider setting MPLCONFIGDIR to a writable directory for matplotlib configuration data"%h)


    return p
get_configdir = verbose.wrap('CONFIGDIR=%s', _get_configdir, always=False)

def _get_data_path():
    'get the path to matplotlib data'

    if os.environ.has_key('MATPLOTLIBDATA'):
        path = os.environ['MATPLOTLIBDATA']
        if not os.path.isdir(path):
            raise RuntimeError('Path in environment MATPLOTLIBDATA not a directory')
        return path

    path = os.sep.join([os.path.dirname(__file__), 'mpl-data'])
    if os.path.isdir(path): return path

    # setuptools' namespace_packages may highjack this init file
    # so need to try something known to be in matplotlib, not basemap
    import matplotlib.afm
    path = os.sep.join([os.path.dirname(matplotlib.afm.__file__), 'mpl-data'])
    if os.path.isdir(path): return path

    # py2exe zips pure python, so still need special check
    if getattr(sys,'frozen',None):
        path = os.path.join(os.path.split(sys.path[0])[0], 'mpl-data')
        if os.path.isdir(path): return path
            # Try again assuming we need to step up one more directory
            path = os.path.join(os.path.split(os.path.split(sys.path[0])[0])[0],
        if os.path.isdir(path): return path
            # Try again assuming sys.path[0] is a dir not a exe
            path = os.path.join(sys.path[0], 'mpl-data')
            if os.path.isdir(path): return path

    raise RuntimeError('Could not find the matplotlib data files')

def _get_data_path_cached():
    if defaultParams['datapath'][0] is None:
        defaultParams['datapath'][0] = _get_data_path()
    return defaultParams['datapath'][0]

get_data_path = verbose.wrap('matplotlib data path %s', _get_data_path_cached,

def get_py2exe_datafiles():
    datapath = get_data_path()
    head, tail = os.path.split(datapath)
    d = {}
    for root, dirs, files in os.walk(datapath):
        # Need to explicitly remove cocoa_agg files or py2exe complains
        # NOTE I dont know why, but do as previous version
        if 'Matplotlib.nib' in files:
        files = [os.path.join(root, filename) for filename in files]
        root = root.replace(tail, 'mpl-data')
        root = root[root.index('mpl-data'):]
        d[root] = files
    return d.items()

00469 def matplotlib_fname():
    Return the path to the rc file

    Search order:

     * current working dir
     * environ var MATPLOTLIBRC
     * HOME/.matplotlib/matplotlibrc
     * MATPLOTLIBDATA/matplotlibrc


    oldname = os.path.join( os.getcwd(), '.matplotlibrc')
    if os.path.exists(oldname):
        print >> sys.stderr, """\
WARNING: Old rc filename ".matplotlibrc" found in working dir
  and and renamed to new default rc file name "matplotlibrc"
  (no leading"dot"). """
        shutil.move('.matplotlibrc', 'matplotlibrc')

    home = get_home()
    oldname = os.path.join( home, '.matplotlibrc')
    if os.path.exists(oldname):
        configdir = get_configdir()
        newname = os.path.join(configdir, 'matplotlibrc')
        print >> sys.stderr, """\
WARNING: Old rc filename "%s" found and renamed to
  new default rc file name "%s"."""%(oldname, newname)

        shutil.move(oldname, newname)

    fname = os.path.join( os.getcwd(), 'matplotlibrc')
    if os.path.exists(fname): return fname

    if os.environ.has_key('MATPLOTLIBRC'):
        path =  os.environ['MATPLOTLIBRC']
        if os.path.exists(path):
            fname = os.path.join(path, 'matplotlibrc')
            if os.path.exists(fname):
                return fname

    fname = os.path.join(get_configdir(), 'matplotlibrc')
    if os.path.exists(fname): return fname

    path =  get_data_path() # guaranteed to exist or raise
    fname = os.path.join(path, 'matplotlibrc')
    if not os.path.exists(fname):
        warnings.warn('Could not find matplotlibrc; using defaults')
    return fname

_deprecated_map = {
    'text.fontstyle':   'font.style',
    'text.fontangle':   'font.style',
    'text.fontvariant': 'font.variant',
    'text.fontweight':  'font.weight',
    'text.fontsize':    'font.size',
    'tick.size' :       'tick.major.size',

00534 class RcParams(dict):

    """A dictionary object including validation

    validating functions are defined and associated with rc parameters in

    validate = dict([ (key, converter) for key, (default, converter) in \
                     defaultParams.iteritems() ])

    def __setitem__(self, key, val):
            if key in _deprecated_map.keys():
                alt = _deprecated_map[key]
                warnings.warn('%s is deprecated in matplotlibrc. Use %s \
instead.'% (key, alt))
                key = alt
            cval = self.validate[key](val)
            dict.__setitem__(self, key, cval)
        except KeyError:
            raise KeyError('%s is not a valid rc parameter.\
See rcParams.keys() for a list of valid parameters.'%key)

def rc_params(fail_on_error=False):
    'Return the default params updated from the values in the rc file'

    fname = matplotlib_fname()
    if not os.path.exists(fname):
        message = 'could not find rc file; returning defaults'
        ret =  dict([ (key, tup[0]) for key, tup in defaultParams.items()])
        return ret

    cnt = 0
    rc_temp = {}
    for line in file(fname):
        cnt += 1
        strippedline = line.split('#',1)[0].strip()
        if not strippedline: continue
        tup = strippedline.split(':',1)
        if len(tup) !=2:
            warnings.warn('Illegal line #%d\n\t%s\n\tin file "%s"'%\
                          (cnt, line, fname))
        key, val = tup
        key = key.strip()
        val = val.strip()
        if key in rc_temp:
            warnings.warn('Duplicate key in file "%s", line #%d'%(fname,cnt))
        rc_temp[key] = (val, line, cnt)

    ret = RcParams([ (key, default) for key, (default, converter) in \
                    defaultParams.iteritems() ])

    for key in ('verbose.level', 'verbose.fileo'):
        if key in rc_temp:
            val, line, cnt = rc_temp.pop(key)
            if fail_on_error:
                ret[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or raise
                try: ret[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or skip
                except Exception, msg:
                    warnings.warn('Bad val "%s" on line #%d\n\t"%s"\n\tin file \
"%s"\n\t%s' % (val, cnt, line, fname, msg))


    for key, (val, line, cnt) in rc_temp.iteritems():
        if defaultParams.has_key(key):
            if fail_on_error:
                ret[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or raise
                try: ret[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or skip
                except Exception, msg:
                    warnings.warn('Bad val "%s" on line #%d\n\t"%s"\n\tin file \
"%s"\n\t%s' % (val, cnt, line, fname, msg))
            print >> sys.stderr, """
Bad key "%s" on line %d in
You probably need to get an updated matplotlibrc file from
http://matplotlib.sf.net/matplotlibrc or from the matplotlib source
distribution""" % (key, cnt, fname)

    if ret['datapath'] is None:
        ret['datapath'] = get_data_path()

    if not ret['text.latex.preamble'] == ['']:
You have the following UNSUPPORTED LaTeX preamble customizations:
Please do not ask for support with these customizations active.
"""% '\n'.join(ret['text.latex.preamble']), 'helpful')

    verbose.report('loaded rc file %s'%fname)

    return ret

# this is the instance used by the matplotlib classes
rcParams = rc_params()

rcParamsDefault = RcParams([ (key, default) for key, (default, converter) in \
                    defaultParams.iteritems() ])

rcParams['ps.usedistiller'] = checkdep_ps_distiller(rcParams['ps.usedistiller'])
rcParams['text.usetex'] = checkdep_usetex(rcParams['text.usetex'])

00647 def rc(group, **kwargs):
    Set the current rc params.  Group is the grouping for the rc, eg
    for lines.linewidth the group is 'lines', for axes.facecolor, the
    group is 'axes', and so on.  Group may also be a list or tuple
    of group names, eg ('xtick','ytick').  kwargs is a list of
    attribute name/value pairs, eg

      rc('lines', linewidth=2, color='r')

    sets the current rc params and is equivalent to

      rcParams['lines.linewidth'] = 2
      rcParams['lines.color'] = 'r'

    The following aliases are available to save typing for interactive
        'lw'  : 'linewidth'
        'ls'  : 'linestyle'
        'c'   : 'color'
        'fc'  : 'facecolor'
        'ec'  : 'edgecolor'
        'mew' : 'markeredgewidth'
        'aa'  : 'antialiased'

    Thus you could abbreviate the above rc command as

          rc('lines', lw=2, c='r')

    Note you can use python's kwargs dictionary facility to store
    dictionaries of default parameters.  Eg, you can customize the
    font rc as follows

      font = {'family' : 'monospace',
              'weight' : 'bold',
              'size'   : 'larger',

      rc('font', **font)  # pass in the font dict as kwargs

    This enables you to easily switch between several configurations.
    Use rcdefaults to restore the default rc params after changes.

    aliases = {
        'lw'  : 'linewidth',
        'ls'  : 'linestyle',
        'c'   : 'color',
        'fc'  : 'facecolor',
        'ec'  : 'edgecolor',
        'mew' : 'markeredgewidth',
        'aa'  : 'antialiased',

    if is_string_like(group):
        group = (group,)
    for g in group:
        for k,v in kwargs.items():
            name = aliases.get(k) or k
            key = '%s.%s' % (g, name)
            if not rcParams.has_key(key):
                raise KeyError('Unrecognized key "%s" for group "%s" and name "%s"' %
                               (key, g, name))

            rcParams[key] = v

00714 def rcdefaults():
    Restore the default rc params - the ones that were created at
    matplotlib load time

    #print "importing from reorganized config system!"
        from config import rcParams, rcdefaults, mplConfig, save_config
        from config import rcParams, rcdefaults

_use_error_msg = """ This call to matplotlib.use() has no effect
because the the backend has already been chosen;
matplotlib.use() must be called *before* pylab, matplotlib.pyplot,
or matplotlib.backends is imported for the first time.

00736 def use(arg):
    Set the matplotlib backend to one of the known backends.

    The argument is case-insensitive.  For the Cairo backend,
    the argument can have an extension to indicate the type of
    output.  Example:


    will specify a default of pdf output generated by Cairo.

    Note: this function must be called *before* importing pylab
    for the first time; or, if you are not using pylab, it must
    be called before importing matplotlib.backends.
    if 'matplotlib.backends' in sys.modules:
    be_parts = arg.split('.')
    name = validate_backend(be_parts[0])
    rcParams['backend'] = name
    if name == 'Cairo' and len(be_parts) > 1:
        rcParams['cairo.format'] = validate_cairo_format(be_parts[1])

def get_backend():
    return rcParams['backend']

00763 def interactive(b):
    Set interactive mode to boolean b.

    If b is True, then draw after every plotting command, eg, after xlabel
    rcParams['interactive'] = b

def is_interactive():
    'Return true if plot mode is interactive'
    b = rcParams['interactive']
    return b

00776 def tk_window_focus():
    """Return true if focus maintenance under TkAgg on win32 is on.
     This currently works only for python.exe and IPython.exe.
     Both IDLE and Pythonwin.exe fail badly when tk_window_focus is on."""
    if rcParams['backend'] != 'TkAgg':
        return False
    return rcParams['tk.window_focus']

# Now allow command line to override

# Allow command line access to the backend with -d (matlab compatible
# flag)

for s in sys.argv[1:]:
    if s.startswith('-d') and len(s) > 2:  # look for a -d flag
        except (KeyError, ValueError):
        # we don't want to assume all -d flags are backends, eg -debug

verbose.report('matplotlib version %s'%__version__)
verbose.report('verbose.level %s'%verbose.level)
verbose.report('interactive is %s'%rcParams['interactive'])
verbose.report('units is %s'%rcParams['units'])
verbose.report('platform is %s'%sys.platform)
verbose.report('loaded modules: %s'%sys.modules.keys(), 'debug')

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